Social conflict between local communities and forestry operators is one of the common challenges faced by forest-rich developing countries. In many of these countries, legal frameworks, tenure rights, and government institutions are often inadequate for dealing with such conflicts. But there are cases where social conflicts can be prevented and resolved, if they are detected at an early stage and properly mitigated.

This guide is a practical tool for medium-size or large forestry operators, including natural forest and plantation forestry managers, who wish to develop conflict resolution strategies as part of their forest management planning. It may also be useful to government agencies tasked with overseeing sustainable forest management.

The guide contains five criteria and 47 indicators for assessing the status of a conflict, which enable the user to identify potential disputes. Based on the assessment results, the user may resort to appropriate conflict mitigation and resolution mechanisms that are further outlined in the guide.

It is adapted from Indonesia’s Ministry of Environment and Forestry Directorate General of Sustainable Production Forest Management regulation: P.5/PHPL/UH/PHPL.1/2/2016, which aims to prevent and resolve social conflicts in production forests. It was tested in several forest management concessions in Indonesia and used to train over 350 staff members who work in forest concessions.

This guide can be used by foreign companies operating in Indonesia, and also be adapted for forest concessions outside Indonesia.

It is a living document and will evolve with time based on the experiences and feedback from users implementing the guide on the ground.